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   信息标题:    新语:文学必须守住“下限”
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新语:文学必须守住“下限”

来源:人民网-《人民日报》

 

烨 中国社会科学院研究员

20082009年中国文情报告》近日出炉。在编撰过程中,我有一个感受:2008年的文学创作,可以用收获平实、样态丰盈来概括。

文学向来就是社会生活的反射镜,时代情绪的感应器。2008年的中国,出人意料地聚集了太多的大事、难事与盛事。文情与社情的内在联结与互动,是近年来文坛少有的。无论是小说、散文、诗歌,均有上乘之作,特别是有关地震救援、奥运举办及回顾改革开放30年的一些重大题材与主题的创作,显得比较集中和突出。

尽管如此,文学的发展也面临着诸多问题与严峻挑战。

这首先表现在对市场化文学与新媒体文学,缺少应有的研究与批评。

自上世纪90年代中后期以来,因为出版日益市场化,文化趋于娱乐化,除少数名家继续成为图书市场的稳定主角外,适应青少年读者的青春文学,流行于网络的类型文学等,成为图书市场上新宠儿。同时,有关的文学批评却严重缺席,价值标准多元,不同的观念之间也缺乏沟通与宽容。

市场化出版以及媒体所倡导的“娱乐至上”理念,所奉行的“吸引眼球”策略,看起来是为了争取和服务更多的受众,其实背后是把读者换算成点击量、销售量,乃至订阅数、印刷数,最终还是落实在最大经济利益的获得上。一些文化人、媒体人,实质上成为了文化与媒体外衣包装下的生意人。

在市场化的冲击下,一些属于规律性与基本性的观点与观念,现在反倒不那么明朗,甚至让人们不无疑惑了。比如,在文学创作上,作者要不要保有责任感;在文学的功用上,要不要坚持寓教于乐;在文学的商业运作中,要不要强调社会效益;在文学阅读上,要不要提倡怡情益智,等等。感觉上,文学领域的价值标准有些混乱,“下限”不断跌破,“上限”不断下移。

面对俗化的文化环境和缭乱的文学现状,批评家需要增强社会责任心和历史使命感,并以知识分子的良知、审美高端的感知,洞悉走势,仗义执言,激浊扬清,逐步改变文学批评宣传多于研究、表扬多于批评的现状。


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