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   信息标题:    鲁迅作品与民族脊梁无关
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媒体评论:鲁迅作品与民族脊梁无关

来源:《中国青年报》

 

据报道,人教版语文教材要大幅缩减鲁迅作品,理由若干。虽然仍保留了几篇,但舆论已是沸反盈天,仿佛这民族的脊梁就此折断。

据说,鲁迅已经成为当今中学生的“三怕”之一。如果我们糟糕的语文教育不可能改观,那么,鲁迅的作品再继续在教材中存在下去,对于鲁迅先生倒不啻于一种戕害。语文教材对鲁迅选择性的阅读与强暴式的主题阐释,显然无助于下一代对鲁迅的准确认识。对于真正了解与认识鲁迅的价值,应试教育下的语文课堂的确不是一个好的平台。

另外一个支持语文教材削减鲁迅作品的理由是,鲁迅是当代愤青的重要思想来源,少学点鲁迅,即可少制造一批愤青。过去的教材中大量选用鲁迅的作品,倒是应验了“愤青要从娃娃抓起”的道理。在鲁迅大量的战斗式的杂文中,固然有民族担当,有对民族劣根性的深刻反省与批判,但是,我们不能不正视的一点是,鲁迅是文学家而非思想家。鲁迅先生的文学成就远远高过他的思想成就。他从早年对民族劣根性的批判,到转向后来的左翼,最终鲁迅先生给我们留下的思想遗产,是崇高的理念下所保持的战斗姿态。这无疑也是当代网络愤青的一个标准剪影。

新中国成立后,鲁迅被摆上了现当代文学的神坛,强化了他的权威性,文坛斗士、民族脊梁的光环反而遮蔽了其思想的局限与言论的偏颇。这其实已经是对鲁迅的异化与道具化。基于我们对中国语文教育的了解,绝大多数中学的课堂除了主题先行、肢解鲁迅并把他变成一个战斗性符号之外,似乎并没有更多的本事。

应该让鲁迅先生歇歇,让他彻底走下神坛了。人教版的语文教材大幅削减其作品,就是这样的一个标志性事件。20多年前,著名学者王富仁先生曾经从学术的层面,把鲁迅先生还原为人。然而,这些年来,鲁迅在学术圈里化身为人,其在社会语境中仍然是神,在语文教材中的地位依旧坚挺。知识精英的共识没能转化为社会共识,除了精英与大众的隔阂,更重要的还在于,鲁迅之作为道具的剩余价值仍然没有被榨取干净。而当下语文教材之视鲁迅为鸡肋,更根本的原因或许在于,这个社会革命激情的消退与宽容精神的增长。语文教材内容的变革,亦成为社会转型的副产品。

语文教材削减鲁迅作品,无论对鲁迅还是对社会,都是一件好事。最起码,有利于避免对鲁迅先生的误读。此事与民族、国家等宏大而抽象的概念无关,只要我们的教育能够培养出理性的个体,让年轻人拥有健全的人格,他们自会于个人利益与社会责任之间做出明确的判断。(于德清)


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