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文学修养与学历无关

 

    我花了几个小时查阅各种资料,只为了证实文学大师沈从文先生的学历到底是小学毕业,还是小学尚未毕业。沈先生在《从文自传》中提到:“民四我进了新式小学,民六夏我便离开了家乡,在沅水流域十三县开始过流荡生活,接受另外一种人生教育了。”由此看来,沈先生只上过两年新式小学,之前他念的是私塾,他在自传中没说自己是否拿到了小学毕业证,但在一份他亲笔填写的简历中,在学历一栏里,他填的是“仅受过小学教育”。多数资料认为沈先生是高小毕业,但画家黄永玉先生在作客凤凰卫视时,坚称自己是初中尚未毕业,他的表叔沈从文则小学尚未毕业。关于沈从文先生的学历,我无法得到一个确切的答案,但这位“仅受过小学教育”的“乡下人”后来成了一代文学大师,还当上了北大教授,却是千真万确的事实。

 

    写作需要知识的积累,作家更需要具备广博的知识,但这些知识并非是学校都能教给你的。作家当然需要文学修养,读者同样需要文学修养,而文学修养的获得与一个人的学历高低并无关系。我读过一些大学教授的专著,也读过一些研究生写的论文,遣词造句上的毛病随处可见,这些人学历都很高了,却连基本的语言运用也没过关,遑论文学修养呢?文学大师中,不只沈从文先生学历低,前苏联文学巨匠高尔基也是小学毕业,就是鲁迅先生也只能算“大专肄业”,他在日本仙台医学专门学校只念了两年就自动退学了。

 

    文学修养是一种能力,包括文学创作的能力和文学欣赏的能力,无论哪种能力的形成都需要建立在对大量文学作品的阅读基础上。沈从文先生以小学学历成长为文学大师并能胜任大学教授的工作,得益于他长年累月的艰苦自学,他在21岁的时候,离开了服役6年的湘西军阀部队,只身来到北京投考北京大学,结果是落榜了,但他一边在北大旁听,一边学习文学创作,当时还得到了郁达夫、周作人等著名作家的支持和帮助。沈从文先生在他长达6年颠沛流离的军旅生涯中,不仅有了厚实的生活积累,也阅读了大量文学和历史书籍,后来又在北大旁听了中文系、历史系、日语系的一些课程,这些经历为他日后的文学创作和教学打下了坚实的基础。全国解放后,沈从文先生因政治原因而放弃了写作,但他又通过自学成为了文物专家和历史学家,他绝对是一个自学成材的典范。

 

    只要是识字的人就读过书,但并非凡识字的人就有能力欣赏文学作品。很多人包括高学历的人对文学并无兴趣,小说还能看看故事情节,但对散文和诗歌就感到头痛了。只有对文字敏感的人才会热爱文学,才会自觉地通过阅读文学作品来提高文学修养。对于文学创作,首先要有一种悟性,很多写作的技巧是在写作实践中作者自己慢慢悟出来的,没有任何学校任何老师可以教会你。文学创作是一项由个人独立完成的艺术品的创造活动,老师可以给与指导,但不可能代替你去完成。学校的教育可以教给你书本知识,可以使你成为某个领域的专家,但学校不能培养作家。成为一个作家除了文学悟性之外,至少需要有文化知识、生活阅历、写作技巧三个方面的积累,而这些积累主要是在学校以外通过个人努力才能完成,也就是古人所说的“功夫在诗外”。

 

    文学修养是一个人人文修养的重要组成部分,我们今天的应试教育往往忽视了对学生的人文教育,这就使得很多对文字敏感的学生没有时间和精力去阅读古今中外的文学名著。不过,只要你真诚地喜爱文学,离开学校以后,不管你是小学毕业,还是大学毕业,都可以通过阅读和写作实践来提高文学修养,因为文学修养与学历无关。当然,最后能够成为作家的只是凤毛麟角,但你至少可以做一个合格的读者,通过欣赏文学作品来认识人生与社会,并从中得到审美享受,平淡的生活就多了一份乐趣与追求,生命的意义也因此而升华到一个更高的境界。

来源http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_43d7302301007smz.html~type=v5_one&label=rela_prevarticle

 

 


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