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美国的穷人

——关于阿瑟·米勒的《推销员之死》

陈家桥

 

可能在某种程度上,我们必须要承认二十世纪在经济上是美国的,在文学上,在文学的某个角度上,也存在着一种美国方式。从福克纳和海明威,我们能看出一点,在艾路持和庞德那里也能看出一些,在厄普代克和索尔贝娄这些靠近当今的作家身上,也能发现美国特性。然而,看完《推销员之死》,我心情很不平静,倒不是他为一个挣扎的人讲述了什么,而仅仅是他真实地呈现了一种存在状态,这种状态也是普遍性的,老推销员威利,不仅有梦想,更主要的是他在他的梦想里完成了他的人生,当然他是极度疲累的,他以一个推销员的身份既认同着一个在世界上差不多最先进的一个制度,同时他的危机在于他这个梦想是跟个人尊严、个人自由、个人选择十分强力地粘合在一块的。

在《推销员之死》中你几乎看不出一个人除了现实性的生存之外,他还有任何多余的色彩和选择,这是一个几乎高度物质化的世界,有一种简单的快乐和逻辑上的巨大的正确性,只要生存,只要生存来自于自身的努力,那么这个社会和个人之间就达成了高度的和谐,然而威利在年老之时,却无法在最后阶段完成对于他人生最后的累积,像搭积木一样,他必须要崩塌,以此来完成他对个人自由和尊严的诠释,因此他无法真正和比夫沟通,其实他们是同一种人,他们是商业社会的正确人格精神的载体,他们的罪恶感仅仅在于他们必须为这个制度性的物质思路,作出自己的终生努力,这是一种美国式的“赤诚”。

然而,毕竟威利还可以和已经去世的哥哥本在想像中对话,这几乎构成了他回溯他早期记忆的惟一方式,然而,正是在这种回溯中,他再次陷入了他自己的悖论,这个悖论正是在于他的一切必须来自于他自身的生产,这是一个典型的“马克思思想”型的观念,推销员成为这个资本制度中的基本份子,他必须以生命中的时间为成本,来构成一种以个人身份到自身伦理的全部认同,所以威利在最后当他寄予期望的大儿子比夫终于对他哭出来时,他十分兴奋地觉察他的痛苦终究是有回报的。

没有什么比《推销员之死》中对话的细节能更好地解释美国人民中的父子关系。这种关系虽然有卡夫卡笔下的异化的父子矛盾倾向,但总体上讲,这种“推销员”家庭式的父子关系完全坦露了一种罕见但又极其普遍的亲情,在人格、自由、精神、劳作和生命的所有价值谱系里,阿瑟·米勒将老推销员的人生全部推进了一个物质矩阵中,无论如何处理这个集合,你会发现他是一个将生存上升到现实层面的人,是一个从底部的观念的困惑、怀疑和选择开始,坚定地托向一个现实的生活层面,从而展示了一个推销员的全部人生。这不再仅仅是对资本制度的批评,更主要的它是对生存难度的一个展示,将生存上升到现实主义的最高处,在剖解其难度的同时,展示其逼真的对人的奴役。

来源http://blog.sina.com.cn/chenjiaqiao

 


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