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奇 特 的 西 藏 文 化

奇特的西藏文化

                                     江苏省南京市精英素质教育学校写作高级班 江楠               

 

难以想象汉语“擦下”是西藏人说的牛肉干。西藏人的心地非常善良,他们不会轻易杀生,一头牛可以够全家人吃很多天,可是捕鱼就不一样了,十条鱼才能吃饱一次,尽管西藏人喜欢吃牛肉,但他们不忍心所去杀害许多的生命。

这些都是听陆若虹叔叔说的。陆叔叔是一个摄影家,他经常去西藏。在与陆叔叔的交流中,我还知道了西藏人的鼻子很大,因为西藏的海拔高,气温低,空气稀薄,因此,西藏人的肺对空气要求很高,所以他们的鼻子才会那么大。

如果西藏的女性镶上金牙,这就表示她的生活条件很好,镶上金牙的女性有时还会故意咧开嘴跟别人谈笑,她们这是在炫耀富贵哩。西藏的湖有绿色的,湖水本应是透明的,但是湖水西周都是绿色植物,植物中的“叶绿素”融解到了湖水中,湖水就变成了绿色的了。西藏的老人们经常转着一个类似摇鼓的东西转,那是---转经桶。我听了不懂,就问陆叔叔:“他们为什么那样做?”陆叔叔回答我:“转经桶里放着写好的经文,每摇一次,就是读了一遍经文,转的次数多了,就是把病灾给消除了。”    

陆叔叔还说,还有许多五颜六色的玛尼石,上面刻着许多的经文,把这些玛尼石放在小河边,就代表着献出了自已的一片心。

西藏的孩子生活有些艰苦,他们的学校距离住家都很偏远,有的学生需要5天才能走到学校,如果出了意外,或者有其他的耽搁,要15天到一个月的时间才能到学校。虽然他们条件艰苦,但只要一撒开脚丫漫山遍野地奔跑,那是他们最为快乐的享受。西藏的孩子真不容易,陆叔叔资助过一些贫困家庭中的孩子上学,并和西藏的一些家庭建立了深厚的友谊。 

西藏的牛羊是不用篱笆围住圈养的,是散放着的,这些牛羊总会把晾在外面的东西吃掉。因为西藏人住在平顶房子里,所以他们把东西都晾在屋顶上,这样,牛羊就吃不到了。但是这种平顶房也有危险,若是遭遇暴风雪,就容易崩塌,不过,他们的房子也逐渐变成我们这里的尖顶房子了,也可以放心把东西放在外面晾了。西藏的人很喜欢喝可乐,他们觉得可乐很好喝,因此经常会去买,还会讨价还价,其实西藏的东西本来就很便宜,西藏人讨价还价只是当做玩笑而已。西藏人会把他们杀掉的牛羊头骨挂在家里,西藏人认为这是上帝赐给他们的食物,即使是头骨也是神圣的。西藏的船又长又窄,由于条件有限,西藏人只能砍树,把树凿成船成的样子。这种船只能坐两个人,一人坐一边,这样能保持平衡。

西藏的语言也很有趣呢;1在藏语中是吉,2是尼,3是松,4是细,5是阿,6是珠,7是登,8是节,9是苗,10是居。11是居吉,20是尼许,100是甲,200是尼甲。西藏最高的山是珠穆朗玛峰,高达5800米。第一次上高原,西藏人胃里的食物80%-90%很难消化。西藏人辟邪的方法也很有趣,是把一个自已想象中的妖魔鬼怪贴在门上,其它的鬼怪来了,看到这里已经有一个鬼了,就会被吓得走开。西藏有一座山,西藏人把这座山称为神山,西藏人每一年都会去插一面经幡,求神灵保佑自已的家庭。山上有一些泉水,据说喝了这些泉水可以治百病,用这些泉水沐浴可以变得更聪明,也可以洗掉身体和心灵上的污渍。

西藏的葬法很特别,我们内地有火葬和土葬,而西藏有水葬、塔葬、树葬和天葬。水葬是将逝者的遗体用木箱装进去再丢入水中;塔葬是只有喇嘛之类品德高尚的人才可以运用的,是将逝者的遗体抹上盐风干,然后让水份蒸发掉,再给逝者穿上新衣服而且要求是白衣,最后让逝者坐在一座白塔之中,以此表示他的名望和权利;树葬是为善良的16岁以下未成年人逝者举行的,是将逝者的遗体放在原始森林树木的树枝上,让其慢慢腐烂掉;天葬,是将逝者的遗体分成一块块的,然后点上香,那些盘旋在天上的鹰看见了,就会飞过来啄食遗体的碎块,等鹰啄食完,只剩下骨头的时候,再将骨头烧成骨灰,撒到很远的地方,西藏人认为鹰是天界与人间的使者,所以他们很喜欢鹰的到来。

西藏的气候很奇怪,白天非常的热,夜晚非常的寒冷。所以西藏人只穿一件衣服,习惯把一只袖子脱下,塞到腰带里,让一只胳膊透透气,到了夜晚再穿上。由于白天的西藏太阳又大又辣,所以西藏人逐渐变黑了,又因整天都在干活,西藏人变得又黑又瘦。西藏虽气候古怪,但还有桃子,这些桃子又大又甜。西藏的牦牛不怕寒冷,因为它们有又长又多的毛包裹在身上。西藏有一座山,它的高度是4687米,相当于我们南京的12个紫金山。西藏的房子是用木头盖的,就是把木头堆在一起,形成木头墙。西藏的石头像房子,是因为那些石头曾堵住了行驶线,人们用钻头钻成一个洞,钻过去,所以那石头就像房子了。

西藏的孩子喜欢喝牛奶和妈妈的乳奶。西藏的贝壳和面包一样大。西藏人很喜欢喝酥油茶,做酥油茶的桶有一个人的肩膀那么粗,那么长,像一个长桶形的杯子。把酥油和水倒进桶形杯子里,然后用木棒搅均匀,这样就可以做成酥油茶了。放水的量要看你的喜欢喝淡的,还是浓的了。

通过陆若虹叔叔的描述,让我在语言中领悟到了西藏的种种神奇……此刻,陆叔叔正在西藏,身在南京的我也想有那么一天,能够去西藏,能真正的去了解奇特的藏族文化!

                              奇特的西藏文化


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